Maritime Energy Transition - An Industry on Course
What has happened in the industry since the launch of our "Maritime Energy Transition" initiative? A lot! Here you will find impressive examples of how the large engine industry is contributing to the Maritime Energy Transition.
The course has been set: greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are to fall by at least 50 percent by 2050 compared with 2008. The target is ambitious, especially against the backdrop of the forecasted strong increase in maritime traffic.
The engine and system manufacturers in VDMA are prepared for this historic decision by the International Maritime Organization (IMO): Already at the National Maritime Conference 2017 we presented a roadmap for the success of the Maritime Energy Transition, which remains unchanged.
Technologically, in the past two years alone, much has been done to ensure clean shipping.
In addition to the ongoing development of traditional technologies, the industry has invested massively in the development of gas engines and hybridization technologies. On the following pages, we would like to present some particularly interesting projects, which exceptionally illustrate the technical options.
From our point of view, Power-to-X technology is another essential component for the success of the initiated change: only with the help of alternative, regeneratively produced fuels can shipping turn away from fossil fuels. The decision of the IMO is a milestone with regards to the introduction of such eFuels, as the goals cannot be achieved without the introduction of this technology. In addition, eFuels enables greenhouse gas emissions to be reduced by more than 50 percent - and thus offers a perspective for further reductions to achieve the ambitious goal of a 70 to 100 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.
I am convinced that, together with industry, politics, and science we will develop many more sustainable and marketable solutions to implement the Maritime Energy Transition and climate neutrality as quickly as possible. We would like to remain in communication with you about this topic in the future.
I would be delighted if you would accompany us on this course and support us extensively.
VDMA Engines and Systems
Greeting from Norbert Brackmann
Industry and Politics:
Together for Environment and Innovation
The maritime economy plays a key role in the competitiveness of Germany as a business location as a whole. The maritime economy does not only take place on the coasts: The shipbuilding supplier industry, which generates up to 80 percent of the value added of a ship new building project, also makes a significant contribution to securing growth and employment in landlocked German states.
The industry is characterised by modern companies, many of which specialise in high-tech products, with strong positions in global competition. The Federal Government's goal is to strengthen the maritime economy in such a way that it can achieve its potential worldwide. Compared to other sectors of the economy, it is particularly affected by changes in the global economy and economic fluctuations.
The increasing demands of climate and environmental protection pose a particular challenge for the shipbuilding and supply industry in Germany: 90 percent of the world's goods are transported by sea. Through technological innovations in new and efficient propulsion systems and new fuels, shipping can make a sustainable contribution to protecting the marine environment and achieving climate targets. At the same time, innovations offer additional sales opportunities for technology-oriented companies.
Research and development processes are an essential prerequisite for the development of new products. With its shipbuilding and maritime research and innovation funding, the Federal Government will continue to contribute in strengthening the competitiveness and future viability of the sector. The success of targeted production is demonstrated by the world's first cruise ship, which was built in Germany, to use liquefied natural gas (LNG) as its fuel. The Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy has provided significant support for the development and application of the LNG drives. In addition, tax incentives for research could help particularly R&D-intensive companies to maintain their position on the world market.
However, our focus is not only on new buildings, but also on existing ships: In the merchant shipping sector, for example, we promoted the conversion of a 1000 TEU container ship to LNG propulsion. In order to extend the success of this pilot project, the "Subsidy Directive on grants for the outfitting and conversion of seagoing vessels for the use of LNG as marine fuel" was adopted. I am pleased that these two projects, which have been followed with great attention worldwide are presented in detail in this brochure.
Just as much attention should be paid to the German government itself, which is responsible for stimulating LNG demand with its own ships, such as the research vessel "Atair" or the multi-purpose ships "Mellum" and "Scharhörn".
Finally, the Electromobility Funding Directive of the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure supports the development of battery-electric ships, which could find a useful application in point-to-point traffic, especially on short distances.
As the federal government's coordinator for the maritime economy, I have been involved in the Maritime Energy Transition - the "greenshipping" –is very important to me. With the revised National Master Plan Maritime Technologies (NMMT2.0) we support maritime technology topics across their entire scope. In addition to low-emission and low-pollutant maritime transport chains, which include marine technology, shipbuilding and port system technology. We are thus focusing on the preparation of new, cross-sector market opportunities. Under the umbrella of the Maritime Agenda 2025 the Master Plan should help to improve the competitiveness and visibility of maritime economy in the long term.
Determining which drives and energy sources will best achieve greenhouse gas-neutral and a decarbonised maritime transport in the future depends to a large extent on further technological developments. Our target remains the zero-emission ship. But even today, in close cooperation with industry and with the extensive maritime research programmes, we can make a significant contribution to maritime energy system transformation.
I am very much looking forward to the further in-depth exchange with the maritime industry!
Norbert Brackmann, Member of the German Bundestag
About the person
As the federal government's coordinator for the maritime industry, Norbert Brackmann coordinates and bundles the federal government's measures to strengthen Germany's international competitiveness as a location for shipbuilding, shipping, port management, and marine technology.
Examples from the industry
Examples from the industrial motor industry for the success of the Maritime Energy Transition
A kiss for the environment: "Green Cruising" with AIDAnova
In 2018, "AIDAnova" took first place in the cruise ranking of the German Nature and Biodiversity Conservation Union (NABU). The reason for this award is that the new building is the first cruise liner in the world to run exclusively on liquefied natural gas (LNG).
The "AIDAnova" resembles a small floating town. There are 2,600 cabins with space for more than 6,000 passengers, cared for by around 1,500 crew members. When the guests look towards the chimney from the sun deck, they see and smell almost nothing. The use of LNG almost completely eliminates the otherwise unavoidable emissions of particulate matter and sulphur oxides from the combustion of marine diesel. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide are reduced by up to 80 and 25 percent, respectively.
The American company, Carnival Corporation, one of the world's largest cruise shipping companies and parent company of AIDA Cruises, relied entirely on the competence of Meyer Werft in Papenburg and the technology of Caterpillar for its complex drive technology. Four MaK type 16 M 46 DF dual-fuel engines, manufactured at the Caterpillar plant in Rostock, work deep down in the fuselage. Their total output is just under 62 MW. Duel-fuel means that the machines can be operated not only with LNG but also with conventional marine diesel in accordance with the international "Safe return to port" regulation. The "AIDAnova" was scheduled until mid-April 2019 off the Canary Islands, where it was bunkered by an LNG tanker every 14 days on Tenerife. Thanks to a far-reaching cooperation with Shell, a stable LNG supply for "AIDAnova" is also ensured in future trade routes.
Gas operation requires a number of other installations on board, such as an LNG processing plant and a bunker system (both from Caterpillar) as well as huge tanks. Meyer Werft built a total of three containers, the two largest of which are each 35 metres long and eight metres in diameter. The total volume of over 3,500 cubic metres is enough for at least 14 days of operation, depending on the speed.
The "AIDAnova" will no longer occupy the top position in the ranking of the cleanest cruise ships alone but will have to move a little to the side. In the coming years, Caterpillar will equip a large number of cruise ships owned by Carnival Corporation each with four environmentally friendly dual-fuel main engines. AIDA Cruises alone will put the next two LNG cruise ships into service in spring of 2021 and 2023.
An LNG bunker operation, here on Tenerife, permits a sea endurance of over 14 days.
The dual-fuel engines were manufactured at the modern Caterpillar plant in Rostock-Warnemünde.
Caterpillar has equipped the "AIDAnova" with four MaK 16 M 46 DF main engines.
Facts and figures
ton is the weight of each of the four MaK 16 M 46 DF Caterpillar main engines installed on the "AIDAnova". Each machine has an output of 15,440 kW at 514 rpm.
metres in length, 42 metres in width and a survey of 183,900 GT make the "AIDAnova" the largest cruise ship ever built in Germany.
develops and produces environmentally friendly diesel, gas and dual-fuel engines under the brand names MaK and Cat for propulsion and power supply. In the maritime sector, the range extends from main and auxiliary drive systems to propulsion systems, gas supply systems and exhaust gas purification.
Sources: Caterpillar, Meyer Shipyard Corporation
Recommended for imitation: Retrofit of the "Wes Amelie" has proved its worth
Existing ships can also be operated with liquefied natural gas (LNG) in an environmentally friendly manner after an appropriate conversion. With the "Wes Amelie", MAN Energy Solutions has converted the world's first container ship for operation with LNG.
The modern feeder ship with a capacity of 1,000 standard containers (TEU), built in 2011, travels the ecologically sensitive North Sea and Baltic Sea trade routes, which are Emission Monitoring Areas (ECAs). “Wes Amelie" must therefore meet the strictest environmental standards and emission limits. By switching to dual-fuel operation, i.e. the optional use between LNG or marine diesel, the container ship in LNG mode can almost completely eliminate its emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. CO2 emissions are also reduced by up to 20 percent making additional exhaust aftertreatment no longer necessary.
The conversion was carried out at the German Dry Docks shipyard in Bremerhaven in close cooperation with a large number of suppliers and received public funding. The most important project was the conversion of the existing MAN 8L48/60B main engine to a MAN 51/60DF engine suitable for gas operation. The MAN drive specialists replaced almost all components of the combustion chamber: the cylinder bore was enlarged from 48 to 51 centimeters, the injection components replaced or supplemented, and a new pilot oil system required for gas operation was installed. In addition, the valve cams, turbocharger components, and control sensors were refitted.
The shipyard installed an LNG tank with a capacity of 500 cubic metres in the foredeck and made direct connections to the engine room. According to information from the shipping company Wessels from Haren, the
"Wes Amelie" now runs permanently and smoothly in LNG operation. Bunkering takes place regularly in Rotterdam.
This retrofit was not only first, but also a technical and economic success that is now being imitated. MAN Energy Solutions has already received orders for a number of further conversions to LNG operation. These include passenger and cargo ferries, container ships, and tankers. There are also concrete plans for a retrofit of the "Wes Amelie" sister ships - after all, 16 identical units of this type are on the move on the world's oceans.
After the retrofit, the "Wes Amelie" is permanently in LNG operation on the North Sea and Baltic Sea.
MAN has already acquired several orders for the conversion of existing ships to dual-fuel engines. These also include passenger and freight ferries with a twin-engine system.
Facts and figures
container parking spaces were lost due to the installation of the LNG tank on the foredeck. A very manageable number with a total capacity of around 1,000 boxes (box containers).
percent fewer soot particles measured by Wessel and MAN Energy solutions in LNG operation compared to conventional fuel.
MAN Energy Solutions
is one of the world's leading suppliers of large diesel and gas engines as well as turbomachinery. The product portfolio includes two- and four-stroke engines for maritime and stationary applications, turbochargers and propellers, as well as complete solutions for ship propulsion systems.
Sources: MAN, shipping company Wessels
Next-generation drive motors: Fast and clean through San Francisco Bay
Population figures in the San Francisco metropolitan area are growing rapidly. This is accompanied by an increasing traffic on the roads. More and more people, especially commuters are looking for an alternative - and find it on the water.
Water Emergency Transportation Authority (WETA) is the name of the authority that operates over a dozen modern fast ferries and nine passenger terminals in the area around San Francisco Bay. In the past five years alone, the number of passengers has risen by almost 80 percent to 2.7 million a year. The shipping company's growth plans are equally as ambitious: a strategy paper stipulates that the fleet will grow to 44 fast ferries by 2035 and that 16 terminals will be served. This means a capacity increase of up to 740 percent compared to today. This means that emission-reduced green drives play an important role.
MTU engines of the latest generation were selected for the three 44-meter-long new catamarans to be built at the American shipyard Dakota Creek Industries: The catamarans will be equipped with a total of six advanced 16-cylinder Series 4000 engines with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for a top speed of 34 knots.
This modern drive concept was virtually predestined for use on the particularly environmentally protected San Francisco Bay. This is because more than 75 percent less nitrogen oxides, 65 percent less particulate matter and five percent less CO2 are emitted.
MTU engines are also being used in Wadden Sea, an ecologically sensitive nature conservation area in the North Sea. New catamarans built at the Strategic Marine shipyard in Vietnam for the Dutch shipping company Doeksen are to be used in Wadden sea for ferry traffic starting at the end of 2019. These catamarans will be equipped with the new MTU gas engines.
These are already considerably below the limit values of the current IMO Tier III emissions directive without exhaust gas aftertreatment; the particulate mass, for example, is below the detection limit.
Alternative for commuters: Clean and environmentally friendly at top speed through San Francisco Bay.
The new catamarans of the shipping company Doeksen with MTU gas engines will start their first test runs in December 2019. The picture shows the transport from Vietnam to Holland.
Facts and figures
MTU Series 2000 and 4000 engines operate on WETA fast ferries.
The 4000 Series
also forms the basis for a new marine gas engine, with which MTU is tapping into the growing market for particularly environmentally friendly LNG engines. In this form, the engine with a rated output of 750 kW will be used in the new construction of a ferry operating on Lake Constance.
Rolls-Royce Power Systems
develops and produces high-speed engines and propulsion systems under the MTU brand for ships, among other things. As part of its green and high-tech strategy, the Group is pursuing the goal of making drive systems even cleaner and smarter, while continuing to decarbonize them.
Source: MTU / Rolls-Royce Power Systems
"Vision of the Fjords": Norwegian design and German components
Only the soft splashing of the waves can be heard when the futuristic "Vision of the Fjords" in pure electric operation drives through a uniquely beautiful natural landscape from the Nærøy to the Aurlandsfjord.
The 40-metre-long and 15-metre-wide Norwegian catamaran has a state-of-the-art parallel hybrid drive on board. It enables both the two diesel engines from MAN Engines (MAN Truck & Bus) and the two electric drives to be operated independently of each other.
MANCRAFT AS, a Norwegian supplier of marine propulsion systems, has developed and designed the concept.
The arrangement and composition of the components in the driveline is a world first in the marine sector: The power of the diesel engines is first transmitted to the Oswald electric motors via an electromagnetic clutch and a cardan shaft. In pure diesel operation, the full combustion power can be transmitted through the electric motors to the two controllable pitch propellers via a transmission manufactured by ZF Friedrichshafen. MANCRAFT's design engineers made use of ZF's wide-ranging portfolio of hybrid transmissions for this purpose.
Water-cooled electric machines are permanent magnet synchronous motors that can be operated either as generators or electric motors. As an alternative, the catamaran can be operated in battery mode for up to three hours on tour making it emission-free. The batteries with a total capacity of 600 kWh are charged either in the port or on the road by the excess energy of the diesel engines.
Passengers hardly notice the difference: separate damping and insulation of all individual components of the drive train ensures vibration-free operation. MAN engines are designed for the lowest possible exhaust emissions.
Whether in diesel or electric mode, passengers can focus on the beauty of the fjords during the journey. The "Vision of the Fjords" not only offers the best view from the large saloon windows but is also completely barrier-free with its circumferential, slightly sloping decks. Technology and design also convinced the editors of the Norwegian ship magazine "Skipsrevyen”: They awarded the "Vision of the Fjords" with the renowned "Ship of The Year Award".
The "Vision of the Fjords" was built by the Norwegian shipyard Brødrene Aa for the tour cruise shipping company The Fjords.
MAN Engines' two diesel engines are particularly low-emission.
Each of the two drive trains consists of a MAN diesel engine, clutch, cardan shaft, the electric motor with torque flange and another cardan shaft as well as the ZF transmission (from the right).
Facts and figures
passengers can be seated on board the "Vision of the Fjords". The one-way journey between the Norwegian coastal towns of Flåm and Gudvangen takes about an hour and a half.
2 x 749
kW, the two twelve-cylinder diesel engines from MAN Engines, type D2862 LE422. They are equipped with a third-generation common rail injection system.
is a business unit of MAN Truck & Bus. For example, the company offers high-speed diesel engines in the 190 to 1,397 kW power range for workboats in light, medium and heavy operation. www.engines.man.eu
ZF Friedrichshafen AG
is a globally active technology group that supplies systems for the mobility of passenger cars, commercial vehicles, and industrial technology. In the Industrial Technology Division, ZF combines its activities for off-road applications which includes the development and production of marine driveline technology. www.zf.com/marine
Sources: MAN Truck & Bus, ZF
With hydroelectric power across the fjord: The "Ampere" is the world's first all-electric vehicle and passenger ferry
“Ampere”, the world’s first fully electric vehicle and passenger ferry operates between two Norwegian villages, six kilometres apart, located in the largest and deepest fjord in Europe
The impetus for the "Ampere" came from a competition organised by the Norwegian Ministry of Transport for the development of a particularly environmentally friendly ferry. The win: A lucrative concession for the connection between Lavik and Oppedal. Previously, conventional diesel-powered ships operated here, but their licence expired. The technology group Siemens, the Norwegian shipyard Fjellstrand and the ferry operator Norled accepted the challenge - and won.
They convinced the ministry with a sophisticated solution that relies on lithium-ion batteries. They are charged 100 percent with electricity from hydropower plants. In close cooperation with the shipyard, Siemens supplied and installed the electric drive concept (SISHIP BlueDrive PlusC). It includes the complete energy management and control of all drives for precise maneuvering.
The greatest challenge for Siemens engineers was the weak power grid in the region, which would hardly have been able to recharge the onboard batteries during the short, usually only ten-minute layover times. Therefore, three battery packs were installed: one onboard and two ashore. With a capacity of 260 kWh each, they serve as intermediate storage tanks from which the ferry supplies itself at the berth for recharging. Throughout the day, these buffers slowly absorb electricity from the local network - without turning off the lights in Lavik and Oppedal.
With the "Ampere", Siemens has succeeded in entering a large market of the future. In Norway alone, there are over 50 comparable ferry connections suitable for battery-powered ships. Siemens has already acquired several follow-up orders, including hybrid ferries with a combined drive system consisting of diesel and electric motors.
With the emission-free drive concept of the "Ampere", the Norled shipping company won the rights to operate the ship across the Sognefjord between Lavik and Oppedal.
Siemens supplied the drive concept, frequency converters, transformers, the software, and a signal system for the charging system at the feeders for the operation of the "Ampere".
Facts and figures
is named after the French mathematician and physicist André-Marie Ampère. In physics, the term defines the electric current.
times a day the “Ampere” moors at the docks by the Sognefjord and runs every 20 minutes. Up to 360 passengers and 120 cars fit onboard.
grams of carbon dioxide emitted by “Ampere”. Energy costs have also fallen by 60 percent compared to the previous diesel operation.
kWh is the consumption of the ferry per route. This is approximately the three-day requirement of an average Norwegian household.
is an international technology group with a focus on electrification, automation and digitization, and one of the world's largest manufacturers of energy-efficient, resource-conserving technologies.
Interview with Dr. Uwe Lauber
The maritime energy revolution is picking up speed
Dr. Uwe Lauber, CEO of VDMA Engines and Systems, explains in an interview how shipowners around the world are implementing the new climate targets, which types of propulsion are suitable, and why Germany's maritime supply industry will benefit from this development.
The 173 member states of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) have adopted ambitious targets for reducing CO2 emissions. By 2030, emissions are to be reduced by 40 percent and 50 percent by 2050, compared with the base year 2008. How do you evaluate this time horizon from the supplier's point of view?
Dr. Uwe Lauber: For the maritime industry with its long investment cycles, 2030 is almost tomorrow and 2050 is the day after tomorrow because merchant ships usually sail for 20 to 30 years. In addition, there are the planning, financing, and construction phases. Here, too, we have to take into account a few years for new ships. Against this background, the timetable is quite ambitious.
How do you see the content of the IMO Roadmap?
The maritime industry must and will make its contribution to climate protection. VDMA, together with the Ministry of Economic Affairs, clearly set an example by calling for a maritime energy system transition at the National Maritime Conference in 2017. In the meantime, fortunately, IMO who is the international regulators have acted and presented a provisional roadmap. This must now be brought to life as there are only goals but no adopted strategy to achieve them.
The clock is ticking. What can the industry already offer its customers?
For us it is absolutely clear that the decarbonisation of maritime logistics must start with the decarbonisation of fuels. Especially in the field of international container shipping, electrification via batteries can at best make a small contribution.
Can you elaborate on that?
The use of LNG or other climate-friendly gases as marine fuels can significantly reduce a number of harmful emissions and even completely eliminate others, such as sulphur oxides. If, in a second step, we obtain these gases climate-neutrally from renewable energies, then green shipping is within reach. From the shipowners' point of view, this procedure also makes sense, as the subsequent switch to synthetic gases does not require any further changes to the propulsion system. Ships powered by gas or dual-fuel engines are therefore future-proof.
And where would the synthetic gas come from?
Here, too, the technology is already available which has been tried and tested. VDMA believes that the production and use of synthetically produced fuels using Power-to-X processes has the fundamental potential to decarbonise all sectors for which direct electrification via batteries is out of the question. We assume that these technologies will find their market and have therefore established the platform "Power-to-X for Applications", short P2X4A. The decisive factor is that Power-to-X finds its way out of the laboratory and into industrially scaled applications. To date, there is still a lack of facilities and thus also of experience.
Then the federal government's real laboratory approach is headed in the right direction?
You're going the right way. However, the question of whether a real laboratory can ultimately become a commercial enterprise is currently above all a political one: the current regulation does not allow the economic operation of Power-to-X systems in Germany. Nevertheless, the approach is correct because we must gain experience in the large-scale industrial application of the process. In the medium term, a market for synthetic gases will emerge for which German plant construction must be prepared. Where the production centres of this market will be is still unclear.
The German government is also relying on synthetic fuels and has provided 45 million euros in additional subsidies.
For climate policy goals to be achieved, politics and business must work together. The federal government also has the zero-emissions ship as its long-term goal. The way forward is via LNG to synthetic fuels and Power-to-X and not only for new buildings, but also for existing fleets. The equipment and conversion of seagoing vessels for LNG operation is also funded in addition to the research budget.
What role does the retrofit play in achieving the goals?
The life cycle of a container ship lasts 20-30 years. In other words, ships that are now coming onto the market or were launched a few years ago still have 10-20 years of operation ahead of them in 2030. Without massive retrofits, the 2030 targets are therefore not achievable. For the shipowners, the later operation of eFuels is a convincing factor that upgrading to gas operation is economical and future-proof.
What significance will the combustion engine play in the future?
The combustion engine will remain indispensable as a propulsion technology in shipping for the time being. The diesel principle is still the most physically efficient way of generating energy, especially with alternative fuels. At the same time, electrical components that can be used to further increase the efficiency of the overall drive are gaining in importance - right up to fully electric operation, even if only over shorter distances. The competition for the best concepts has only just begun.
What do the trends and developments you describe mean for Germany as a maritime industrial location?
The more complex the required components are, the higher their development costs, the better we can capitalize on the strength of Germany as a location. Shipbuilding tankers, bulk carriers and container ships, which are not very demanding in terms of shipbuilding, have long since been manufactured cost-effectively in China. The shipbuilding countries Japan, South Korea and Germany will again be involved in LNG and electric ship building. For our maritime supply industry, which extends from the coast to the deep south of Germany and the environment, this development is good news.
Thank you very much for the interview, Dr. Lauber!
The interview was conducted by Hamburg trade journalist Behrend Oldenburg.
About the person
Dr. Uwe Lauber (*1967) studied mechanical engineering at the University of Applied Sciences (HTWG) in Konstanz, where he obtained a Master's degree. In 2000 he also studied business engineering at the business school in St. Gallen. In addition, he received his doctorate in mechanical engineering from the University of Kronstadt in 2009.
Since January 1, 2015, he has been Chairman of the Executive Board and since June 21, 2016, Chief Technology Officer of MAN Energy Solutions SE (formerly MAN
Diesel & Turbo SE).
In February 2018, Dr. Uwe Lauber was elected Chairman of the Executive Board of VDMA Engines and Systems.